Yemen’s first national child labour survey – which was carried out with the support of the UN International Labour Organization (ILO), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Social Development Fund – revealed that of the country’s 7.7 million children in the 5-17 age group, 17 per cent are working, with many performing unpaid work. “The survey reveals the alarming extent to which Yemeni children are deprived of their rights,” said ILO’s Regional Director for the Arab States, Nada al-Nashif. “The protection of Yemen’s children must be a priority for the international community. Yemen’s development depends on it.” Child labourers are defined by the study as “anyone under the age of 14 who is employed, and those in the 14-17 age group who work more than 30 hours a week, or are involved in any designated hazardous economic activities and occupations.” In addition to the 1.3 million child labourers, the report finds that more than 300,000 children aged 14 to 17 work in conditions and activities considered suitable for their age. The report goes on to state that working children and child labourers are far more likely than others to skip or drop out of school. It also stresses that widespread poverty, population pressure, political instability and limited opportunities for employment outside agriculture have a significant impact in their livelihoods. In a news release, ILO noted that Yemen has ratified its two key conventions on child labour accepting that 14 is the minimum age for employment, and recognizing that children under the age of 18 cannot be employed in hazardous work. While a majority of countries have adopted legislation to prohibit or place severe restrictions on the employment and work of children, conventions on child labour continues to exist on a massive scale, sometimes in appalling conditions, particularly in the developing world, the agency added.
“Combatting climate change, promoting sustainable development and addressing the vulnerabilities of SIDS will demand partnership, capacity and leadership,” said Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who recalled that the SAMOA Pathway is here “to guide us.” Last year’s Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States in Samoa increased global attention on their contributions to sustainable development – but also on their unique vulnerabilities, Mr. Ban reminded to the Council members, who were meeting for an unprecedented debate about the situation of these countries. From traditional armed conflict to transnational crime and piracy, illicit exploitation of natural resources, climate change and climate-related natural disasters and uneven development, small island developing States face a range of peace and security challenges, according to the concept note provided by New Zealand, which holds the rotating Presidency of the Security Council for the month of July. Caribbean SIDS, for example, are vulnerable to drug-trafficking and gang-related violence, noted the Secretary-General, while unreported and unregulated fishing undermine local economies. Through its Maritime Crime Programme, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime is actively engaged to help these countries in these areas. “Taken together with the broader vulnerabilities faced by many of these States communities, these challenges can disproportionately affect national stability, fuel conflict across regions and ultimately have an impact on the maintenance of international peace and security,” adds the Security Council concept note. For the Secretary-General, the first priority must be to support these States in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. “Second, we need a post-2015 development agenda and sustainable development goals that address the needs of SIDS,” he continued. At the recent Financing for Development Conference in Addis Ababa, which took place from July 13 to 16, it was encouraging that the concerns of [that group of countries] were reflected, including in critical areas such as debt, trade, technology and Official Development Assistance, Mr. Ban noted. “Third, we need a meaningful and universal global climate agreement in Paris in December,” stressed the UN chief, as small island developing States are on the front lines of climate change. “Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu is only the latest in a long string of devastation that SIDS have endured and will continue to endure as long as climate change is not adequately addressed,” he warned, underscoring that Caribbean countries sometimes experience as many as five hurricanes in a season. Rising sea levels, dying coral reefs and the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters exacerbate the conditions leading to community displacement and migration, threatening to increase tensions over resources and affect domestic and regional stability, the Secretary-General went on to say. “Leading by example,” many of these countries have been accelerating their own transition to renewable energy to secure a sustainable energy future. But, to support SIDS in their actions to combat climate change and adapt to its impacts, “a politically credible trajectory for mobilizing the pledged $100 billion dollars per year by 2020” is needed, he explained. The Green Climate Fund will need to be up and running before the Climate Conference in Paris in December, but a “meaningful, universal climate agreement” must be adopted, concluded the Secretary-General.