The Phil Lesh Quintet, containing Warren Haynes, Jimmy Herring, Rob Barraco, and John Molo, will be performing at the Forest Hills Tennis Stadium in Forest Hills, NY, on September 21st. The concert, organized by The Capitol Theatre and Madison House Presents, will see the longest tenured “Phil Lesh & Friends” lineup return to NYC for the first time since 2003.After numerous incantations, Phil Lesh settled into a quintet with Haynes (guitar; Allman Brothers, Gov’t Mule), Herring (guitar; The Dead, Allman Brothers, Aquarium Rescue Unit, now Widespread Panic), Barraco (keyboards; The Dead, Dark Star Orchestra) and Molo (drums; Bruce Hornsby, John Fogerty, Keller Williams). The veteran musicians toured regularly from 2000-2003, but peacefully disbanded thereafter. Each has since performed as part of Phil Lesh & Friends throughout the years, but this marks the first reunion of the Quintet.Tickets for the show will go on sale this Monday, August 4th, at 10 AM Eastern time. You can find them here.-David Melamed (@DMelamz)
On April 27th, 1971, the Grateful Dead were smack-dab in the middle of a run at the Fillmore East in New York City spanning from April 25th through 29th. The Dead had some surprises up their sleeve for the Tuesday performance, inviting The Beach Boys (consisting of Mike Love, Carl Wilson, Bruce Johnston, and Al Jardine) to join them for a short string of songs toward the end of their set. The Beach Boys, who were introduced as “another famous California group” to the surprise of the crowd, came out for “Searchin’” during the second set following “Dire Wolf.” Together, the two popular and wildly different bands moved into a cover of The Robins’ “Riot In Cell Block #9.”The Dead then departed the stage, leaving the Beach Boys to play out their classic tracks “Good Vibrations” and “I Get Around.” It’s a silly and delightful interlude in the recording with giggling at the start of “Good Vibrations” showcasing the lighthearted-nature of the evening. “If we start another song, maybe they’ll come back out and join us,” starts the next song, with the Dead eventually returning to the stage during the number. Together the two bands now on stage teamed up for renditions of Merle Haggard’s “Okie From Muskogee” and Chuck Berry’s “Johnny B. Goode,” but not before a chaotic tuning session during which the members on stage confirm that the appearance was unplanned and that they’re trying to get things figured out.It was a one-of-a-kind performance, during which two popular bands that have come to define those times in very different ways came together and clearly had a good time. Audio from the Dead’s Fillmore East run was released officially on the 2000 release of Ladies and Gentlemen… The Grateful Dead, though none of the Beach Boy collaborations made the cut. You can listen to the full audio from the show below:Grateful Dead – Fillmore East – 4/27/1971[Audio: Bob Murphy]Setlist: The Grateful Dead | Fillmore East | New York, NY | 4/27/1971Set 1: Truckin’, Mama Tried, Bertha, Next Time You See Me, Cumberland Blues, Me And Bobby McGee, Loser, Hard To Handle, China Cat Sunflower-> I Know You Rider, Casey JonesSet 2: Sugar Magnolia, Deal, Me & My Uncle, Bird Song, Playing In The Band, Dire Wolf, Searchin’*, Riot In Cell Block #9*, Good Vibrations**, I Get Around**, Help Me Rhonda*, Okie From Muskogee*, Johnny B. Goode*, Sing Me Back Home, Uncle Johns Band > Turn On Your Love LightNotes: *with the Beach Boys, **just the Beach Boys[Originally published 4/27/20]
“What everyone seeks is an agent that has an effect on cancer cells but leaves normal cells alone, and this shows that grape seed extract fits into this category,” he said. Shi adds, however, that the research is not far enough along to suggest that people should eat grapes, grape seeds, or grape skin in excess to stave off cancer. “This is very promising research, but it is too early to say this is chemo-protective.”Hematological cancers – leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma – accounted for an estimated 118,310 new cancer cases and almost 54,000 deaths in 2006, ranking these cancers as the fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and death in the U.S.Using a commercially available grape seed extract, Shi exposed leukemia cells to the extract in different doses and found the marked effect in causing apoptosis in these cells at one of the higher doses.Given that epidemiological evidence shows that eating vegetables and fruits helps prevent cancer development, Shi and his colleagues have been studying chemicals known as proanthocyanidins in fruits that contribute to this effect. Shi has found that apple peel extract contains these flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity, and which cause apoptosis in several cancer cell lines but not in normal cells. Based on those studies, and findings from other researchers that grape seed extract reduces breast tumors in rats and skin tumors in mice, they looked at the effect of the compound in leukemia cells.They also discovered that the extract does not affect normal cells, although they don’t know why.The investigators, who report their findings in the January 1, 2009, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, also teased apart the cell signaling pathway associated with use of grape seed extract that led to cell death, or apoptosis. They found that the extract activates JNK, a protein that regulates the apoptotic pathway.The researchers then used pharmacologic and genetic approaches to determine how the extract induced apoptosis. They found that the extract strongly activated the JNK pathway, which then led to up-regulation of Cip/p21, which controls the cell cycle.They checked this finding by using an agent that inhibited JNK, and found that the extract was ineffective. Using a genetic approach – silencing the JNK gene – also disarmed grape seed extract’s lethal attack in leukemia cells.“This is a natural compound that appears to have relatively important properties,” Shi said.(Source: American Association for Cancer Research)AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMore AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMoreAn extract from grape seeds forces laboratory leukemia cells to commit cell suicide, according to researchers from the University of Kentucky. They found that within 24 hours, 76 percent of leukemia cells had died after being exposed to the extract.While grape seed extract has shown activity in a number of laboratory cancer cell lines, including skin, breast, colon, lung, stomach and prostate cancers, no one had tested the extract in hematological cancers nor had the precise mechanism for activity been revealed.“These results could have implications for the incorporation of agents such as grape seed extract into prevention or treatment of hematological malignancies and possibly other cancers,” said the study’s lead author, Xianglin Shi, Ph.D., professor in the Graduate Center for Toxicology at the University of Kentucky.
Vermont Business Magazine The Personal Income tax was down a little and the Corporate Tax was down a lot as General Fund revenues collected for the month of September totaled $149.99 million, -$3.34 million below the consensus cash flow expectation adopted by the Emergency Board on July 21, 2017, according to Secretary of Administration Susanne Young. The under-performance was driven primarily by -$2.87 million less than expected collections in Personal Income Tax and -$1.92 million less than expected in Corporate Tax. All other components of the General Fund were either slightly ahead or behind target, with the Rooms & Meals Tax (+3.26%) had another good month.Year to date, which is also the first quarter of fiscal year 2018, the General Fund under-performed by -$2.85 million, again driven primarily by less than expected collections in Personal Income and Corporate Taxes. The Corporate Tax in particular has suffered this fiscal year, as it’s down year-over-year by -17.62%.The Transportation Fund collected $26.62 million for the month, $1.26 million ahead of its $25.36 million target. All components of the Transportation Fund were modestly ahead of target led by the Purchase and Use Tax at +$0.88 million. Year to date, the Transportation Fund is ahead of target by +$1.27 million.The Education Fund collected $17.67 million for the month, +$0.87 million above the target of $16.79 million. Year to date the Education Fund is ahead of target by $0.51 million.Compared to September in fiscal year 2017, the General Fund revenues to date have increased by only $.58 million, $352.98 million vs $349.55 million. The Transportation and Education Funds revenues are also only slightly ahead by $2.67 million and $2.68 million respectively.Secretary Young stated, “We are pleased to see some year over year revenue growth but continue to be concerned the economy is growing at a rate lower than expected. The first quarter typically represents the first major milestone of any fiscal year and, while the under-performance was less than 1%, it is nevertheless a concern that we missed on the negative side of the forecast.”September marks the third month and the first quarter end of fiscal year 2018.Source: Administration 10.19.2017
Dr. Kenny Southwick will retire from the Shawnee Mission School District at the end of this year.Dr. Kenny Southwick, who oversaw hundreds of millions of dollars worth of construction projects during his five-year tenure here, announced on Thursday that he will retire from the Shawnee Mission School District this summer.Southwick said the decision came in part as a result of the administration’s need to fill a gap caused by a significant reduction in funds the district receives under the Title 1 program the past few years. First-year Superintendent Mike Fulton and other central administration staff indicated on Thursday that they planned to announce a cost-saving reconfiguration of the organizational chart later this month.Southwick said he wanted to give Fulton “the freedom to look at” how reworking the structure of the higher administration could held protect services for students.“At any tough times, good administrators roll their sleeves up and protect the classroom,” he said. “I felt compelled in my life to stand up and say it’s really time for me to retire.”Southwick said that he was “completely at peace” with the decision and that Shawnee Mission had made a lasting impression on him.“This is a great school district. It has great people. It’s great community. It’s great students,” Southwick said. “Don’t let anybody tell you differently. What happens every day in this district — the energies that people put in to making thing go well for kids — I’ve never seen any place like this.”Fulton and members of the board took the opportunity to thank Southwick for his service at Thursday’s board of education meeting.“When we were going through this budget conversation and you came to me and you shared your feelings, the first thought I had was, ‘I don’t want you to leave.’ And the second thought I had was ‘What a great leader,’” Fulton said to Southwick. “I want to thank you for everything you’ve done for the children. And Shawnee Mission is better for your work.”Oversaw massive infrastructure improvement program, served as interim superintendentDr. Kenny Southwick at a meeting with Briarwood parents in 2015 discussing the plans for reconstructing the school.Former Superintendent Jim Hinson brought Southwick to Shawnee Mission as his deputy in spring 2014 and tasked him with overseeing a massive capital improvement initiative made possible by the voter-approved $233 million bond issue in January 2015.Southwick had already enjoyed a long career in the Belton School District, including 12 years as superintendent, when he retired there in 2010 and started working as an educational planner for ACI Boland Architects. That experience with school building design and construction was well employed here in Shawnee Mission as the district set about updated aging facilities, including the construction of six new school buildings, the renovation of SM South District Stadium, and the installation of modern security systems in schools. The work also included the new, state-of-the-art aquatics center under construction at Lenexa’s City Center.Southwick has also served as the district’s lead negotiator in annual contract negotiations with the National Education Association – Shawnee Mission the past few years.Following Hinson’s unexpected retirement in spring 2017, the board tapped Southwick to serve as interim superintendent for the 2017-18 school year as it searched for Hinson’s full-term replacement.Southwick was the district’s top leader during last April’s National Walkout Day demonstrations, when administrators’ alleged attempts to discourage students from specifically mentioning gun violence and gun control led to a law suit filed by students who said their 1st Amendment rights had been violated. The suit initially listed Southwick as a defendant in his capacity as an individual. However, a federal judge on Monday dismissed claims against Southwick specifically while allowing the bulk of the suit to move forward. The parties are scheduled to meet today with a judge to discuss potential settlement of the case.The retirement agreement accepted by the board of education on Thursday will have Southwick working and taking a salary through July 4, 2019. He’ll receive a lump sum payment for unused vacation time, but will not receive any special exit compensation.
Volkmann said Robinson became like a father figure to him.Their relationship extended off the mat, too. Robinson gave Volkmann part-time jobs in the offseason and even drove Volkmann and his wife Christine — a former cross country and track and field athlete at Minnesota — to their wedding reception in his 1955 Chevy.“If you needed something, you could call Jacob Volkmann up at 2 o’clock in the morning and say, ‘Jake I need you here.’ And he would come,” Robinson said.“He’s the kind of guy that once he’s with you, he’s with you forever.Volkmann for presidentIn January 2011, Volkmann found himself in some political hot water.After a UFC 125 match, Volkmann was asked who he would like to fight next. At first he named another UFC competitor, but then he changed his answer to President Barack Obama.When asked to explain his choice, Volkmann responded, “Someone’s got to knock some sense into that idiot.”At first the comments only sparked Internet buzz. But eventually the controversy led to a sketch on “The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.”While Volkmann said he was only joking, the Secret Service thought otherwise.Three days after his fight, Volkmann received an email saying the Secret Service was going to pay him a visit. Two days later, the agents came to Volkmann’s house, leaving his wife in tears.She directed them to White Bear Lake Area High School, where Volkmann was coaching youth wrestling. The agents pulled Volkmann out of practice to question him and make sure he wasn’t planning to travel to Washington, D.C. and harm the president.“[I said], ‘Aw jeez, I can’t even afford the plane ticket,’” Volkmann said. “There’s a lot of sensitive people out there, that’s for sure.”Volkmann used the media’s attention surrounding the comments to promote himself.The process of matching up UFC fighters is a little political, Volkmann said. The organization wants exciting fighters for the main cards showed on TV.“[You] try and find something about yourself that fans like that’s a little different than other fighters,” Volkmann said.So he spun his one-off remarks into a presidential campaign.He made T-shirts and yard signs that read “Volkmann for president” and encouraged his fans to write in his name on the ballot. He chose the same orange and black colors as White Bear Lake since the school put him on administrative leave after the incident.Robinson said he will vote for Volkmann in November.“I think it’s very innovative to use it in that positive light and have some fun with it,” Robinson said.But Juusola, Volkmann’s training partner, said Volkmann is interesting enough on his own.“He’s a funny guy. I think he should just be funny and talk normal about his life,” Juusola said. “I think the whole president thing is a little overdrawn.”Fighting until the endWhen Volkmann was a college wrestler, the UFC was still gaining popularity. He said he was probably a part of the first generation of Division I college wrestlers to make the move.Now, the sport has many more fans, and Becker said more collegiate wrestlers are looking to join after finishing school.“The intensity, the ‘You-versus-me’ mentality [of wrestling] — I think it just goes hand and hand with mixed martial arts,” Becker said.Becker said recently graduated Gophers wrestler Sonny Yohn is starting to fight and may train at Minnesota Martial Arts Academy, where Volkmann also trains.Volkmann said wrestlers even younger than college-age, like the kids he coaches at White Bear Lake and a local youth program, are interested in ultimate fighting.“They don’t understand, though,” Volkmann said. “Very few people go into the UFC. Some of them think that they’re going to get in the UFC easily just from wrestling.”Volkmann said young fighters can’t just jump into the sport because if they lose a lot right away, the UFC won’t even look at their application. Instead, he suggests focusing on wrestling first.When Volkmann began ultimate fighting, he said he had a five-year plan to retire from the sport — hopefully after becoming UFC champion.But now his philosophy has changed.“My main goal is if I’m still here, to keep fighting,” Volkmann said. “Once they cut me, I’m done. … Hopefully I can retire before they cut me.”Volkmann has many other priorities he can take on after his fighting career is over. He has three young children, and he opened his own chiropractic clinic in 2008 after earning his Doctor of Chiropractic degree. But he is on appointment-only basis so he can focus on his fighting.“My main goal is to continue fighting until I can’t fight any more,” he said. Former wrestler Volkmann stars as UFC fighterJacob Volkmann is a chiropractor by day, UFC fighter by night.Mark VancleaveFormer Minnesota wrestler Jacob Volkmann chokes his opponent, Shane Roller, during a UFC event Friday night at the Target Center. Volkmann won the bout in the first round after Roller failed to break his hold and tapped out. Megan RyanOctober 9, 2012Jump to CommentsShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailPrintFormer Gophers wrestler Jacob Volkmann bounced from foot to foot surrounded by a chain-link cage in the Target Center on Friday night.A chiropractor by day, Volkmann was readying himself for an ultimate fight with former Oklahoma State wrestler Shane Roller.“Get him to the ground and choke him,” a voice from the crowd yelled.Two and a half minutes into the first five-minute round, that’s exactly what Volkmann did.“As soon as I put my hips into him, he kind of grunted, and I was like, ‘It’s over,’” Volkmann said. “You know when it’s over, and he didn’t fight at all.”It was Volkmann’s first submission in the Ultimate Fighting Championship, or UFC.“The Volkmann you’ve seen out there, that’s the real Volkmann. That’s the Volkmann we see in the gym,” said Zach Juusola, Volkmann’s training partner. “I was happy, happy to see him actually show the kind of fighter he is.”The 32-year-old began his mixed martial arts career in about 2007. He’s been climbing the ranks ever since and even got into hot water for picking a fight with the president along the way.The ultimate jobVolkmann first attempted to switch wrestling styles from folk to the international Greco-Roman so he could possibly compete at the Olympics. But he never quite mastered the new style and set his sights elsewhere.Former UFC lightweight champion Sean Sherk visited the University of Minnesota to give a demonstration of some submission moves. Sherk ultimately invited Volkmann to help him train for an upcoming fight and gave him his start.“It’s a lot more exciting than wrestling because in wrestling you can stall,” Volkmann said. “I always had opponents that stalled. … In [the UFC], you’re going to get hit if you stall.”Before a prospective fighter can step into the cage, he needs to be officially accepted into the UFC. After showing success in lower divisions, Volkmann applied and was accepted.He made his UFC debut in November 2009, notching a 6-3 record. In his current lightweight class, he is 6-1.His wrestling experience helped ease his transition, as did his three years of boxing from high school. But Volkmann still had to learn martial arts like Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Muay Thai.But J Robinson, his former Gophers wrestling coach, said Volkmann had the perfect disposition to go into a sport that’s “pretty much like gladiators.”“He’s fricking tough. He’s got grit,” Robinson said. “You get a guy down and he’s bleeding … and you’re just still whaling on him. … Jacob can do that and come back.”Former Gophers teammate and current Gophers assistant wrestling coach Luke Becker said Volkmann has what it takes to succeed in such a vicious sport.“He was going to do whatever it took to win. He may break [something] in the process, but he’s going to fight through it and battle through it,” Becker said. “Mixed martial arts is perfect for him.”The intensity doesn’t suit everyone, though, including Volkmann’s wife.“The wife, she supports it as long as it pays the bills,” Volkmann said. “She doesn’t really like it. … It’s too much for her. She hyperventilated the last time she went to one.”Homegrown dreamVolkmann said he started wrestling at about the age of four, following his father’s footsteps. However, Volkmann said he hated the sport when he first started.He didn’t enjoy it until he started winning. The Henning, Minn., native captured the Minnesota state championship three times in high school.Even so, Volkmann almost didn’t pursue his career collegiately. He joined the military reserve for basic training after his junior year of high school and planned to start advanced individual training after his senior year.But the military ultimately gave Volkmann an uncharacterized discharge because his training kept overlapping with school.“It’s just something I always wanted to do. Little kids love the military stuff,” Volkmann said. “Growing up in a small town, you respect the military, too.”Although his goal of being a man in uniform wasn’t realized, Volkmann did become a Gophers wrestler — a goal he dreamed of since he became more serious about wrestling,“I kind of fell in love with Minnesota, and that’s where I wanted to go,” Volkmann said. “I never even really paid attention to any other school.”Robinson said the coaching staff spent time recruiting Volkmann.“He’s a small town kid from a farm, hard worker. That’s the kind of kid that does very well here,” Robinson said.Volkmann said he spent most of his first year at school studying in his dorm for his two majors, geophysics and geology. He relied on his team to draw him out of his shell.Robinson said Volkmann has a work ethic beyond what most people can fathom and was a dream to coach.“Volkmann’s Volkmann,” he said. “We would give guys a day off every now and then and he would say, ‘What do we need a day off for?’ It’s just the way he is.”Volkmann’s work ethic helped him to numerous achievements with the Gophers. He won the Big Ten championships, was a three-time All-American and was a member of Minnesota’s first two NCAA title teams in 2001 and 2002.
CB Richard Ellis released its 2Q 2011 market analysis of the Phoenix area office, industrial and retail sectors and report highlights include:OfficeThe office market vacancy rate decreased slightly in the second quarter, declining to 26.0 percent from 26.3 percent at the end of the first quarter. During the same time period, vacancy among class A buildings declined by one and a half percentage points to 22.8 percent.The average asking lease rate for existing office space declined for the fifth consecutive quarter to $21.21 per square foot. However, market rents appear to have bottomed out and there is modest rental growth in class A space.At the end of the second quarter, the Valley’s office market had 556,772 square feet of positive absorption. Class A and B assets accounted for 524,441 square feet and 127,082 square feet of occupied space, respectively, while class C properties had 94,751 square feet of negative absorption.The office market will not be impacted by the addition of speculative product. The only reported construction are build-to-suits, consisting of two buildings totaling 439,070 square feet in Tempe and a 225,000-square-foot building in the Deer Valley submarket.IndustrialThe industrial market had its fifth consecutive quarter of positive absorption, recording 848,042 million square feet. This compares to 1.1 million square feet of positive absorption for the same period last year.The industrial vacancy rate has dropped by more than a full percentage point in the past two years, declining to 13.9 percent from 15.2 percent in the second quarter of 2009.An increasing number of companies are looking at the metro Phoenix industrial market as an alternative to locating or expanding in California. In addition to solar-related companies, there has been an increase in distribution and logistics activity primarily in the Southwest Valley.There has been considerable improvement in the metropolitan Phoenix distribution market, pushing its vacancy down to 15.9 percent from 21.1 percent one year ago.RetailIn the second quarter, the metropolitan Phoenix retail market posted 450,151 square feet of negative absorption. A contributing factor was the closing of a number of Borders Books and Ultimate Electronics stores, which collectively vacated 448,938 square feet of occupied space.In the past 12 months, the retail vacancy rate has risen 40 basis points to end the second quarter at 12.6 percent. However, vacancy has increased 510 basis points from year-end 2008, when the rate was 7.5 percent.The average net asking lease rate for existing retail space throughout the Phoenix area increased in the second quarter of 2011, up to $15.86 per square foot from $15.71 at the end of the first quarter and $15.53 per square foot at the end of 2010. Yet, the rate is 2.7 percent lower than one year ago when it was $15.95 per square foot.The availability of big box space remains a concern for property owners Valley-wide. There were 326 big box spaces greater than 10,000 square feet, totaling 8.9 million square feet of available space at the end of the second quarter. This compares to 99 big box spaces and 2.4 million square feet of available space at the same time in 2006.For more information about CB Richard Ellis, visit cbre.com.
Take Venus, for example, Earth’s next-door neighbor and Carter’s “favorite planet,” as she readily admits. Even with the most powerful telescopes, we never get to see its surface, which is permanently shielded from view by a broiling shroud of clouds. Until the 1960s, sci-fi novels speculated about a lush, tropical world covered in jungles. To do so, the team had to invent new techniques and augment available mapping software to capture an accurate representation of Bennu, an irregularly shaped object whose surface is studded with boulders, including some the size of a parking garage and with overhang. “We keep finding new things, such as features in the polar regions that we call spiders,” McEwen says. “We think they’re caused by carbon dioxide gas flowing underneath ice sheets, carving the surface topography. Another recent discovery is boulders that slowly move downhill, possibly driven by the seasonal expansion and contraction of ice underground.” Orthorectification is necessary to derive the topography from an image, he explains. The UA scientists who produced the first detailed atlas of the moon used a rather analog, but elegantly simple setup to accomplish this. These days, it is done by the keen eyes of specially trained people and sophisticated software. One of the things the Apollo 17 astronauts were tasked with doing was mapping the moon’s surface from the bird’s eye view of their orbiter. In addition to photographing the obvious – topographic features like hills, craters and boulders – the radar antenna allowed them to reveal hidden geologic features underneath the moon’s surface. “To make a map, you have to understand the geometry of your images and mosaic them together. And then you have to change the perspective to what it looks like straight down, unless the originals were acquired that way,” McEwen said of the process called orthorectification. In addition to enabling future human exploration missions to Mars, this research helps answers fundamental questions about how the red planet came to be what it is today, Bramson explains. Mapping Other Worlds Jupiter’s Shapeshifting Satellites Covering new ground for future touch-down sites also is a declared goal of ongoing Mars research at the UA, including a shallow-ground radar mapping mission proposed by Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Deputy Director Shane Byrne. One of the requirements is to look for water ice deposits shallow enough that astronauts can get to them and use them as a resource for fuel and water. Meanwhile, the HiRISE team is currently scouting potential landing sites on Mars’ midlatitudes for Elon Musk’s Space X company. UA News: “We look at planets to understand how they formed,” Carter says, “and also to better understand features here on Earth that have been obscured by the very geologic processes that make our planet special. Studying other objects in the solar system is a way to study things that didn’t turn out the way they did here on Earth.” Taking pictures is only the first step in generating a map of a planetary surface accurate enough to allow landers to touch down without crashing into undiscovered boulders or prevent robotic rovers from getting stuck in loose sand. TUCSON — In 1972, it took an astronaut going on a spacewalk to do what Lynn Carter now can do with a few mouse clicks over lunch. HiRISE, whose eye is sharp enough to spot a coffee table (if there was one) on the ground from 180 miles above, is now in its fifth extension and still going strong. At the time it launched, similarly detailed maps of Earth were classified and only accessible to the individuals at the Pentagon, said Alfred McEwen, UA Regents’ Professor of Planetary Sciences and principal investigator of HiRISE. Since then, HiRISE has revealed a stunningly beautiful planet. The instrument’s stereo vision, unprecedented resolution and repeated imaging passes completely changed how scientists interpreted previous images taken of the red planet, McEwen says. Navigating in Three Dimensions “Many of the Jupiter satellites are what we call triaxial ellipsoids,” McEwen says. “Their three-dimensional shapes change with the strong tidal forces under Jupiter’s gravitational field, and that is a real challenge if you want to do precision mapping.” Through recent hires of radar mapping experts, the UA has become one of the premier institutions for radar imaging science, says Ali Bramson, who recently graduated with a Ph.D. from the Department of Planetary Sciences and now is a postdoctoral fellow in Carter’s group. Together with Eric Peterson, a postdoctoral fellow on the team of professor Jack Holt, who joined the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory last year, Bramson is part of a project that integrates datasets from many different imaging techniques to paint a more complete picture of ice hidden underneath the Martian surface. The goal is to produce a data product that could be used in planning crewed missions. Measuring such changes is interesting for its own sake, however, because it reveals clues about the interior properties of those objects that would be difficult or impossible to study otherwise, McEwen adds. A Coffee Table on Mars? DellaGiustina adds that in addition to ensuring mission safety, mapping at such unprecedented detail delivers “really cool, incredible science.” One of the most successful visualization missions is HiRISE, which is led by the UA. HiRISE is a high-resolution imaging camera that has photographed Mars in unprecedented detail while orbiting the red planet aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for more than 10 years. The images are so detailed that over the course of a decade, after snapping 62,712 images, it has covered a mere 3.5% of the Martian surface. But coverage was never the goal – rather, HiRISE was sent to Mars to find future landing sites and to provide image that will help scientists understand the ancient and present-day geologic processes of Mars. The planet has proven to be surprisingly active in spite of the fact that it is a cold, dusty world lacking plate tectonics or a magnetic field and whose atmosphere largely wafted off into space. Carter specializes in making maps of the unseen: using data obtained with ground-penetrating radar instruments, she visualizes and interprets features buried under the surface of planetary bodies like the moon, Mars and Venus. Carter, a planetary science professor at the Univerity of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, points to a small, framed photograph above her desk. It shows the Apollo 17 spacecraft, the last crewed mission to the moon, cruising high above the grey, cratered expanse below. UA scientists and engineers have pushed the field forward by designing instruments and cameras that have flown on several space missions to map unknown territory, including Mercury, the planet closest to the sun, Saturn’s moons Titan and Enceladus, and Jupiter’s moon Io. They also are working on proposed instruments for future mapping projects that include Earth’s moon, Mars and Europa, Jupiter’s large moon whose subsurface water ocean is considered a hot candidate for extraterrestrial life. The radar data were recorded on old-fashioned cassette tapes stored underneath a hatch that was only accessible from outside the spacecraft. To retrieve the film, astronaut Ron Evans had to put on a spacesuit and wiggle through the hatch of the Apollo capsule while it hurtled through space somewhere between the moon and the Earth at almost 25,000 miles per hour. “Radar crushed that idea, as it unveiled a solid, super-hot surface with many volcanoes.” Carter says. “All of a sudden, Venus did not look hospitable at all.”Unlike the explorers and cartographers who ventured out to map the Earth from land and sea, planetary scientists have to map from afar, looking through telescopes, or, if they’re lucky enough to get a spacecraft mission funded, from orbit. Most recently, UA scientists are nearing completion of the most detailed map ever made of any solar system body, including Earth: cameras designed at the UA are scanning the rocky surface of Bennu, a near-Earth asteroid about as tall as the Empire State Building, and the team of the UA-led OSIRIS-REx sample return mission mapped Bennu’s surface down to the inch. Being able to select a safe site for the spacecraft to touch down and grab a sample is a logical prerequisite for the mission, which is poised to return a sample of pristine asteroid material to Earth in 2023. “See that little antenna sticking out there? That was the first planetary radar on a spacecraft, and while it went around the moon, it pinged the surface,” she said. “Each time it hit a different rock layer, it reflected a signal and recorded it on film.” “What we thought to be ancient dunes, for example, frozen in time for possibly millions of years, turned out to be changing constantly.” Some of the other challenges facing cartographers of the solar system are how to define sea level when your object of study doesn’t have a sea or how to nail down coordinates on an object that’s not exactly spherical or constantly shifts its shape. “By getting a dataset of an entire asteroid and going from that scale all the way down to centimeter-sized pixel imaging, we can really begin connecting asteroids to the meteorite population we have in our labs,” DellaGiustina says. “By mapping the subsurface ice, we can try to piece together the planet’s climate history,” she says. “This allows us understand the natural climate shifts without the confounding factors that we have on Earth, such as human population, vegetation and oceans.” HiRISE has seen a whole suite of ongoing activity including new impact craters, where the impacting meteorite blasted water ice out from underneath the planet’ surface, erosion gullies and other features, some so unearthly that planetary geologists like McEwen are still struggling to explain their origin with certainty. “One coordinate system is not enough, so we are working in both latitude and longitude and cartesian coordinates all the time,” DellaGiustina says. “This allows us to generate 3D point clouds and assign precise coordinates to every pixel.” “By the time we’re done with the characterization of the candidate sample sites, we’ll be able to see an object the size of a penny,” says Daniella DellaGiustina, lead image processing scientist for OSIRIS-REx. To a planetary scientist like Carter, mapping another world is about much more than figuring out what is where on the surface and how to get from point A to point B (although navigation is becoming an increasingly important goal, with efforts ramping up to send astronauts to new horizons such as Mars or near-Earth asteroids). “Today, it’s totally different,” Carter says. “Everything is digital, and the instruments have much better resolution. We can see things on Mars from our living room that you couldn’t see even if you could travel there and stand on the surface yourself.”
By DR. TED WIARDEditors Note: This is an ongoing series by grief specialist Dr. Ted Wiard, dedicated to helping educate the community about emotional healing.Societal losses have continued to inundate people as a community, family, and individuals.Societal losses such as the COVID pandemic, fires, politics, fears in elections, hurricanes, deaths of leaders, financial losses, and many more stressors due to changes within society have traumatized most people over the last 8 months to new levels. As grief tries to redefine these situations and help transition people into the actuality of the present situation, and empower the next steps of action, the psyche can become overwhelmed and allow levels of denial to help halt the flood into the system with unstable stimuli of change coming into the brain.The phase of denial in the grief process plays an enormous role to try to filter all the stimuli of change that is barraging the nervous system. One of the ways that denial deflects stimuli is with a tangential focus. What this means is as a person has a topic that is causing emotional dysregulation, the psyche will look at a different angle of that loss to help decrease the impact on the person emotionally, physically, spiritually, and intellectually. Similar to making sure you look away from the sun to not be blinded, yet knowing the sun is still there, and taking in the amount of stimuli that is not harmful for the person. Quite often tangential actions come out as arguing with partners, being agitated at manageable issues rather than the primary irritant, and other actions that losses are acted out in secondary issues rather than true actor of the pain. Tangential grief helps keep someone from being overwhelmed but can cause other losses in the process. As feelings of autonomy feel hijacked due to loss, it is easy to look for other topics to try to control and demand change, fix and rescue someone from the discomfort. This type of behavior is often acted out within the family system.As internal pressure grows, similar to a pressure cooker, a release is needed to discharge that internal stress. As that stress grows and isn’t directed towards the primary issue, it is released in negative behaviors towards loved ones. Energy is blown sideways which may cause collateral damage in your most important relationships. To avoid this collateral damage, start by being conscious of what is causing the person to be agitated. Engage in ways to release stress in healthy ways and do it! Also, reach out for healthy support from professionals and loved ones, take peaceful actions, express your feelings, and most importantly, continue to find ways to be kind and loving to your friends and family, rather than cause chaos within the system that is actually supporting the person. Tangential behaviors is habitual, and is a way to not get overwhelmed. Becoming conscious of actions can help deter more stress on top of the true cause of the emotional disruption. Self-care and conscious actions will help the person, as well as those around them, which will help build a team approach to walk through these difficult times. I wish you well, and until the next time, take care.Golden Willow Retreat is a nonprofit organization focused on emotional healing and recovery from any type of loss. Direct any questions to Dr. Ted Wiard, EdD, LPCC, CGC, Founder of Golden Willow Retreat GWR@newmex.com or call at 575.776.2024. Los Alamos virtual grief support group is offered, at no charge. Visit www.goldenwillowretreat.org.
Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.