UA Scientists Move From Mapping Moon To Worlds Beyond With A Few Mouse Clicks Over Lunch

first_imgTake Venus, for example, Earth’s next-door neighbor and Carter’s “favorite planet,” as she readily admits. Even with the most powerful telescopes, we never get to see its surface, which is permanently shielded from view by a broiling shroud of clouds. Until the 1960s, sci-fi novels speculated about a lush, tropical world covered in jungles.    To do so, the team had to invent new techniques and augment available mapping software to capture an accurate representation of Bennu, an irregularly shaped object whose surface is studded with boulders, including some the size of a parking garage and with overhang. “We keep finding new things, such as features in the polar regions that we call spiders,” McEwen says. “We think they’re caused by carbon dioxide gas flowing underneath ice sheets, carving the surface topography. Another recent discovery is boulders that slowly move downhill, possibly driven by the seasonal expansion and contraction of ice underground.” Orthorectification is necessary to derive the topography from an image, he explains. The UA scientists who produced the first detailed atlas of the moon used a rather analog, but elegantly simple setup to accomplish this. These days, it is done by the keen eyes of specially trained people and sophisticated software. One of the things the Apollo 17 astronauts were tasked with doing was mapping the moon’s surface from the bird’s eye view of their orbiter. In addition to photographing the obvious – topographic features like hills, craters and boulders – the radar antenna allowed them to reveal hidden geologic features underneath the moon’s surface. “To make a map, you have to understand the geometry of your images and mosaic them together. And then you have to change the perspective to what it looks like straight down, unless the originals were acquired that way,” McEwen said of the process called orthorectification. In addition to enabling future human exploration missions to Mars, this research helps answers fundamental questions about how the red planet came to be what it is today, Bramson explains. Mapping Other Worlds Jupiter’s Shapeshifting Satellites Covering new ground for future touch-down sites also is a declared goal of ongoing Mars research at the UA, including a shallow-ground radar mapping mission proposed by Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Deputy Director Shane Byrne. One of the requirements is to look for water ice deposits shallow enough that astronauts can get to them and use them as a resource for fuel and water. Meanwhile, the HiRISE team is currently scouting potential landing sites on Mars’ midlatitudes for Elon Musk’s Space X company. UA News: “We look at planets to understand how they formed,” Carter says, “and also to better understand features here on Earth that have been obscured by the very geologic processes that make our planet special. Studying other objects in the solar system is a way to study things that didn’t turn out the way they did here on Earth.” Taking pictures is only the first step in generating a map of a planetary surface accurate enough to allow landers to touch down without crashing into undiscovered boulders or prevent robotic rovers from getting stuck in loose sand. TUCSON — In 1972, it took an astronaut going on a spacewalk to do what Lynn Carter now can do with a few mouse clicks over lunch. HiRISE, whose eye is sharp enough to spot a coffee table (if there was one) on the ground from 180 miles above, is now in its fifth extension and still going strong. At the time it launched, similarly detailed maps of Earth were classified and only accessible to the individuals at the Pentagon, said Alfred McEwen, UA Regents’ Professor of Planetary Sciences and principal investigator of HiRISE. Since then, HiRISE has revealed a stunningly beautiful planet. The instrument’s stereo vision, unprecedented resolution and repeated imaging passes completely changed how scientists interpreted previous images taken of the red planet, McEwen says. Navigating in Three Dimensions “Many of the Jupiter satellites are what we call triaxial ellipsoids,” McEwen says. “Their three-dimensional shapes change with the strong tidal forces under Jupiter’s gravitational field, and that is a real challenge if you want to do precision mapping.” Through recent hires of radar mapping experts, the UA has become one of the premier institutions for radar imaging science, says Ali Bramson, who recently graduated with a Ph.D. from the Department of Planetary Sciences and now is a postdoctoral fellow in Carter’s group. Together with Eric Peterson, a postdoctoral fellow on the team of professor Jack Holt, who joined the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory last year, Bramson is part of a project that integrates datasets from many different imaging techniques to paint a more complete picture of ice hidden underneath the Martian surface. The goal is to produce a data product that could be used in planning crewed missions. Measuring such changes is interesting for its own sake, however, because it reveals clues about the interior properties of those objects that would be difficult or impossible to study otherwise, McEwen adds. A Coffee Table on Mars? DellaGiustina adds that in addition to ensuring mission safety, mapping at such unprecedented detail delivers “really cool, incredible science.” One of the most successful visualization missions is HiRISE, which is led by the UA. HiRISE is a high-resolution imaging camera that has photographed Mars in unprecedented detail while orbiting the red planet aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for more than 10 years. The images are so detailed that over the course of a decade, after snapping 62,712 images, it has covered a mere 3.5% of the Martian surface. But coverage was never the goal – rather, HiRISE was sent to Mars to find future landing sites and to provide image that will help scientists understand the ancient and present-day geologic processes of Mars. The planet has proven to be surprisingly active in spite of the fact that it is a cold, dusty world lacking plate tectonics or a magnetic field and whose atmosphere largely wafted off into space. Carter specializes in making maps of the unseen: using data obtained with ground-penetrating radar instruments, she visualizes and interprets features buried under the surface of planetary bodies like the moon, Mars and Venus. Carter, a planetary science professor at the Univerity of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, points to a small, framed photograph above her desk. It shows the Apollo 17 spacecraft, the last crewed mission to the moon, cruising high above the grey, cratered expanse below. UA scientists and engineers have pushed the field forward by designing instruments and cameras that have flown on several space missions to map unknown territory, including Mercury, the planet closest to the sun, Saturn’s moons Titan and Enceladus, and Jupiter’s moon Io. They also are working on proposed instruments for future mapping projects that include Earth’s moon, Mars and Europa, Jupiter’s large moon whose subsurface water ocean is considered a hot candidate for extraterrestrial life. The radar data were recorded on old-fashioned cassette tapes stored underneath a hatch that was only accessible from outside the spacecraft. To retrieve the film, astronaut Ron Evans had to put on a spacesuit and wiggle through the hatch of the Apollo capsule while it hurtled through space somewhere between the moon and the Earth at almost 25,000 miles per hour. “Radar crushed that idea, as it unveiled a solid, super-hot surface with many volcanoes.” Carter says. “All of a sudden, Venus did not look hospitable at all.”Unlike the explorers and cartographers who ventured out to map the Earth from land and sea, planetary scientists have to map from afar, looking through telescopes, or, if they’re lucky enough to get a spacecraft mission funded, from orbit. Most recently, UA scientists are nearing completion of the most detailed map ever made of any solar system body, including Earth: cameras designed at the UA are scanning the rocky surface of Bennu, a near-Earth asteroid about as tall as the Empire State Building, and the team of the UA-led OSIRIS-REx sample return mission mapped Bennu’s surface down to the inch. Being able to select a safe site for the spacecraft to touch down and grab a sample is a logical prerequisite for the mission, which is poised to return a sample of pristine asteroid material to Earth in 2023.  “See that little antenna sticking out there? That was the first planetary radar on a spacecraft, and while it went around the moon, it pinged the surface,” she said. “Each time it hit a different rock layer, it reflected a signal and recorded it on film.” “What we thought to be ancient dunes, for example, frozen in time for possibly millions of years, turned out to be changing constantly.” Some of the other challenges facing cartographers of the solar system are how to define sea level when your object of study doesn’t have a sea or how to nail down coordinates on an object that’s not exactly spherical or constantly shifts its shape. “By getting a dataset of an entire asteroid and going from that scale all the way down to centimeter-sized pixel imaging, we can really begin connecting asteroids to the meteorite population we have in our labs,” DellaGiustina says. “By mapping the subsurface ice, we can try to piece together the planet’s climate history,” she says. “This allows us understand the natural climate shifts without the confounding factors that we have on Earth, such as human population, vegetation and oceans.” HiRISE has seen a whole suite of ongoing activity including new impact craters, where the impacting meteorite blasted water ice out from underneath the planet’ surface, erosion gullies and other features, some so unearthly that planetary geologists like McEwen are still struggling to explain their origin with certainty. “One coordinate system is not enough, so we are working in both latitude and longitude and cartesian coordinates all the time,” DellaGiustina says. “This allows us to generate 3D point clouds and assign precise coordinates to every pixel.” “By the time we’re done with the characterization of the candidate sample sites, we’ll be able to see an object the size of a penny,” says Daniella DellaGiustina, lead image processing scientist for OSIRIS-REx. To a planetary scientist like Carter, mapping another world is about much more than figuring out what is where on the surface and how to get from point A to point B (although navigation is becoming an increasingly important goal, with efforts ramping up to send astronauts to new horizons such as Mars or near-Earth asteroids). “Today, it’s totally different,” Carter says. “Everything is digital, and the instruments have much better resolution. We can see things on Mars from our living room that you couldn’t see even if you could travel there and stand on the surface yourself.”last_img read more

Emotional Healing: A Tangential Focus

first_imgBy DR. TED WIARDEditors Note: This is an ongoing series by grief specialist Dr. Ted Wiard, dedicated to helping educate the community about emotional healing.Societal losses have continued to inundate people as a community, family, and individuals.Societal losses such as the COVID pandemic, fires, politics, fears in elections, hurricanes, deaths of leaders, financial losses, and many more stressors due to changes within society have traumatized most people over the last 8 months to new levels. As grief tries to redefine these situations and help transition people into the actuality of the present situation, and empower the next steps of action, the psyche can become overwhelmed and allow levels of denial to help halt the flood into the system with unstable stimuli of change coming into the brain.The phase of denial in the grief process plays an enormous role to try to filter all the stimuli of change that is barraging the nervous system. One of the ways that denial deflects stimuli is with a tangential focus. What this means is as a person has a topic that is causing emotional dysregulation, the psyche will look at a different angle of that loss to help decrease the impact on the person emotionally, physically, spiritually, and intellectually. Similar to making sure you look away from the sun to not be blinded, yet knowing the sun is still there, and taking in the amount of stimuli that is not harmful for the person. Quite often tangential actions come out as arguing with partners, being agitated at manageable issues rather than the primary irritant, and other actions that losses are acted out in secondary issues rather than true actor of the pain. Tangential grief helps keep someone from being overwhelmed but can cause other losses in the process. As feelings of autonomy feel hijacked due to loss, it is easy to look for other topics to try to control and demand change, fix and rescue someone from the discomfort. This type of behavior is often acted out within the family system.As internal pressure grows, similar to a pressure cooker, a release is needed to discharge that internal stress. As that stress grows and isn’t directed towards the primary issue, it is released in negative behaviors towards loved ones. Energy is blown sideways which may cause collateral damage in your most important relationships. To avoid this collateral damage, start by being conscious of what is causing the person to be agitated. Engage in ways to release stress in healthy ways and do it! Also, reach out for healthy support from professionals and loved ones, take peaceful actions, express your feelings, and most importantly, continue to find ways to be kind and loving to your friends and family, rather than cause chaos within the system that is actually supporting the person. Tangential behaviors is habitual, and is a way to not get overwhelmed. Becoming conscious of actions can help deter more stress on top of the true cause of the emotional disruption. Self-care and conscious actions will help the person, as well as those around them, which will help build a team approach to walk through these difficult times. I wish you well, and until the next time, take care.Golden Willow Retreat is a nonprofit organization focused on emotional healing and recovery from any type of loss. Direct any questions to Dr. Ted Wiard, EdD, LPCC, CGC, Founder of Golden Willow Retreat GWR@newmex.com or call at 575.776.2024. Los Alamos virtual grief support group is offered, at no charge. Visit www.goldenwillowretreat.org.last_img read more

Battersea Power Station bidders charge up offers

first_imgWould you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.last_img

Axa axes €2.5bn fund . . .

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

BSB hits back in row over costs of challenge to QASA

first_imgThe bar’s regulator has described as ‘grossly inaccurate’ claims that it is prepared to spend up to £500,000 fighting a court challenge to the assurance scheme.,The bar’s regulator has described as ‘grossly inaccurate’ claims that it is prepared to spend up to £500,000 fighting a court challenge to the Quality Assurance Scheme for Advocates (QASA). In a statement this morning, the Bar Standards Board (BSB) said it is ‘aware of a number of misleading and inaccurate statements’ regarding the costs associated with the judicial review of the assurance scheme, which opened for registrations at the beginning of this month.Barristers backed by the Criminal Bar Association have received permission to seek a judicial review of the scheme, and sought a protective costs order of £15,000 on the case. The High Court yesterday set reciprocal a cost cap of £150,000. The BSB, which is an interested party in the proceedings, said today that the order meant that, in the event of an order for costs being made against the claimants in favour of either or both the defendant (the Legal Services Board) and the first interested party (the BSB), the claimants would not be liable for costs exceeding £150,000.In the event of an order for Costs being made in favour of the claimants, the judge will apportion the costs be paid, within the cap, between the LSB and the BSB.It said that, when setting the level of the cost cap, the court took into account the fact that the Criminal Bar Association is supporting the challenge.The regulator strongly defended its right to secure adequate representation. ‘We are represented by solicitors and leading counsel,’ it stated. ‘Given the nature of the submission and the status of the claimants, the BSB is likely to be required to play a significant role in assisting the court with information about the development of QASA. It is therefore appropriate for the BSB to be suitably represented.’Reasonable legal costs ‘may be in the region of £100,000’, it said, dismissing comments that the BSB is going to spend £400,000-500,000 in ‘defending’ QASA as ’grossly inaccurate’.It urged the claimants to provide further clarity by publishing the order issued by the High Court.last_img read more

Kenya’s First Lady calls for attention on obstetric fistula cure

first_imgU.S. first lady arrives in Kenya Pop Icon Madonna in Kenya, meets First Lady and slum children Kenya’s First Lady Margaret Kenyatta. Image courtesy Kenya’s First Lady Margaret Kenyatta. Image courtesyKenya’s First Lady Margaret Kenyatta on Saturday called for the need to intensify ongoing efforts to end obstetric fistula even as the country is battling with COVID-19 pandemic.Margaret said although Kenya has in the past couple of years registered encouraging decline in maternal mortality, pregnancy-related complications such as obstetric fistula and other morbidities continue to be a public health concern.“During this COVID-19 pandemic period when health concerns have been prioritized to fight the pandemic, our healthcare facilities are not only strained but also disrupted,” she said in a statement on this year’s International Day in Ending Obstetric Fistula being observed globally on Saturday.Margaret said she has made a firm commitment to champion advocacy in ending obstetric fistula in Kenya by 2030, by creating awareness on prevention and also by encouraging women living with the condition to seek treatment through surgical repair.“We have supported these women to integrate back into their communities and supported the training of 136 community healthcare workers who are the frontline caregivers for our women and girls,” Margaret said.Obstetric fistula affects women who lack access to quality obstetric care.The disease is more prevalent among women living in communities whose cultural practices encourage early marriage and female genital mutilation, both factors increase the risk of prolonged obstructed labor leading to the condition.Relatedcenter_img Kenya’s First Lady Half Marathonlast_img read more

PAHO Names Dominica Among Regional Countries With Coronavirus Testing Capabilities

first_img Tweet CoronavirusLocalNewsRegional PAHO Names Dominica Among Regional Countries With Coronavirus Testing Capabilities by: – March 3, 2020 119 Views   no discussions                                            Dr Carissa F EtienneThe Pan American Health Organisation has confirmed that Dominica has the capacity to test for the novel coronavirus which has so far killed 3,000 people and sickened close to 90,000 worldwide.Director of the Washington-Based Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) Dr Carissa Ettiene told a CARICOM news conference that PAHO has some concern for countries with weak health systems.She added that it was important to note that several countries in the region have the capacity to test for COVID-19.Dr Ettiene listed Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, Belize, The Bahamas and Haiti, also Martinique, French Guiana, Curacao, Aruba and St Martin and the British territories – Cayman Islands and Bermuda as countries on that list.She said, PAHO is working in the region to strengthen member states capacity to detect, contain and manage the spread of the virus.“Our work in the region is to strengthen member states’ capacity to detect, contain and manage cases. We believe that there is some capacity in the region but there is work that is necessary to ensure that there is maximum capacity in the Caribbean region,” she reported.About two weeks ago, Dominica’s Hon Health Minister, Dr Irving Mcintyre had said that training was ongoing.Sixty countries have reported cases with five new countries reporting cases – Monaco, Azerbaijan, Qatar and Ireland. Sharecenter_img Share Share Sharing is caring!last_img read more

Jamaica Records First Coronavirus Case

first_img Share 62 Views   no discussions Tweet Sharing is caring! Health Minister, Dr Christopher Tufton(Loop SLU) Jamaica has recorded its first case of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the Ministry of Health announced on Tuesday.The patient, a young adult female, arrived on the island from the United Kingdom on March 4 and was placed in isolation after presenting symptoms of COVID-19 in the public health system on March 9, health minister Dr Christopher Tufton announced at a press conference.“Based on the patient’s travel history and symptoms, health professionals suspected COVID-19,” Tufton said.“A clinical sample was collected and sent to the National Influenza Centre, where laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis today at approximately 11 am,” he added, noting that the patient and family members have been informed.Tufton said the patient’s infection was travel-related and added that “steps are being taken to prevent the risk of community spread”. Among those measures, he said, are the dispatch of a health team to the home of the patient for assessment and initiation of public health measures; the identification and contact tracing for all possible exposed persons; and a meeting of ministry officials with members of staff at the hospital and the necessary interventions put in place.The health minister also announced that the island has imposed travel restrictions on an additional three countries – Spain, France and Germany; while travel restrictions remain on China, Italy, South Korea, Singapore, and Iran.center_img Share Share CoronavirusNewsRegional Jamaica Records First Coronavirus Case by: – March 10, 2020last_img read more

DFA Premiere League Updates

first_img Share Share Sharing is caring! Tweet LocalNewsSports DFA Premiere League Updates by: – September 1, 2020center_img 24 Views   no discussions Happi Bath Estate put on a solid performance in the only match possible on Sunday in the DFA Premier League at the Windsor Park Stadium as they defeated Petro Caribe Pointe Michel 3-0.The win means Happi Bath Estate has made things interesting as the race for the title heats up.Andersen Lawrence scored a brace for Bath Estate, with Anfernee Frederick getting one.Coach of Bath Estate Football Club is Colin Bernard.“It’s a good feeling, having scored more than one goal, I mean, that’s something that I’ve been craving for a while. But, you know, based on defense and no goal against that’s a win for me.With Bath Estate now in second position, Coach Bernard says his team is a team in transition and not title contenders for this year.It’s a good feeling, having scored more than one goal, I mean, that’s something that I’ve been craving for a while. But, you know, based on defense and no goal against that’s a win for me.In another match, LA Enterprises Bombers continued their unbeaten run since the resumption after the COVID 19 BREAK, with a 3-2 victory over Belfast Estate Mahaut Soca Strikers in the second match of the DFA Premier League on Saturday at the Windsor Park Stadium.Usher George scored a brace for bombers, with Jamie Parillon getting one.Jerran Sebastien and Francis Luke converted for Soca Strikers.Meanwhile, Promex Harlem dumped a truck load of goals on Exodus FC on Saturday, with an 11-1 victory.Second half substitute, Teryl Grell netted five times for Harlem, with Rashio Jervier getting a brace.Audel Laville, Jarvis Humphreys, Brandel Richards and Delbert Graham scored one each to complete the onslaught. Kish Toussaint got the lone goal for Exodus. Sharelast_img read more

Physio session with HSI High-Performance Physiotherapist Claire-Maria Campbell

first_img Tags: 23 June 2020, 19:06 New to our Training Tips series!Let’s get working on ourselves before the season kicks off with our horses. Check it out on our Youtube Channel now by clicking the link below!Team Ireland Physio Session with Claire-Maria Campbellcenter_img Physio session with HSI High-Performance Physiotherapist Claire-Maria Campbell Home  »  General  »  Physio session with HSI High-Performance Physiotherapist Claire-Maria Campbell last_img read more